cross media – different medias (TV, radio, print, film) or different media institutions (studios, newspapers, TV networks)

convergence – the joining of two or more media companies or technologies to form a new object/promote a new product

in cross media convergence – more than one company benefits from working in a partnership. cross media convergence ensures that the film reaches the widest audiene available.

out of home advertising – advertising that reaches consumers when out of the house

cross media convergence in skyfall and shifty –

  • skyfall sponsered by heineken (they paid £28 million to feature in the film)
  • skyfall sponsered by tom ford, sony, aston martin
  • shifty sponsered by boxfresh (clothing and shoes company), they paid for the lauch party
  • 007 cologne

out of home advertising –

  • london 2012 stunt
  • coke zero advert
  • posters
  • shifty – illegeally placing posters

UK film council –

  • set up by the labour government as a non-departmental public body in 2000
  • help promote british film industry
  • BBC films, Film4, film councilmain port of call for film makers trying to get feautre films off the ground, especially if those films are outside the mainstream, or ‘specialised’.
  • council recieved £15 million funding per year
  • funded by national lottery, it channelled about £160 million into more than 900 films over the last 10 years, including Bend it like Beckham, This is England, and more
  • UK film council closed in April 2011.
  • the BFI (british film institute) has taken over its core functions: distribution of lottery funding, production, supporting distribution and exhibition through prints and advertising fund, certification of UK films, research and statistics.
  • BFI increased the lottery fund by 20% from £15 million to £18 million in 2011/12

screening british films nationwide

  • studios are selective about where and when they release films
  • e.g. a bollywood film wouldn’t do as well in an area where the population is 99% white
  • looking for eric is good example of different ways of marketing in different localities and for audiences

digital is the future –

  • the digitalisation of film makes it cheaper to produce, distribute and exhibit
  • independent film makers can produce larger numbers of prints at smaller cost, therefore they will not lose as much money if the film does not attract such a large audience in the cinemas
  • shifty – the cinema exhibition was mainly an advertising method, to get people to buy the DVD






  • social class – a group of people within a society that possess the same economic status, often determined by occupation, education, income, manners, etc.
  • status – high rank or social standing


  • up until 1950’s, upper class was main class shown on TV and film
  • because they were some of the only people who could afford to go to the cinema and own a TV
  • as more and more people from working class backgrounds watch TV, more and more TV programmes featured working class people


  • upper class – rich, clever, snobby, posh (e.g. made in chelsea)
  • middle class – normal, good family values, well behaved (e.g. my family)
  • working class – poorer, less happy, less intelligent, strong community links (e.g. coronation street)
  • lower class – criminals, no family values, no community links, bad parents (e.g. shameless)

British social class system

  • upper class – inherited wealth, includes some of oldest families, many of them titles aristocrats
  • middle class – majority of population of UK. inustrialists, professionals, business people and shop owners
  • lower class – agricultural, mine and factory workers

CLASS – social construct. a system of ordering society whereby people are divided into sets based on percieved social and economic status

STATUS – the position of an induvidual in relation to another or others, especially in regard to social or professional standing

new classes

  • elite – most priveleged group. distinct from other six classes through wealth. highest levels of all 3 capitals
  • established middle class – second wealthiest, scoring highly on all 3 capitals.
  • technical middle class – small, distinctive new class group which is prosperous but scores low for social and cultural capital
  • new affluent worker – young class group which is socially and culturally active, middling levels of economic capital
  • traditional working class – scores low on capital but not completely deprived.
  • emergent service workers – a new, young, urban group which is relitavely poor but has high social and cultural capital
  • precariat – poorest, most deprived class, scoring low for social and cultural capital


gossip girl clip

In this clip, there is a clear divide between the classes. There is always a tight frame around Chuck and Blair, so they appear to be more important as they take up a lot of the frame. This shows that they are upper class as they dominate the scene when they walk in. Rufus also sinks into the background even though they sit on the same couch, as the camera is closer to Chuck and Blair, therefore appearing bigger.





  • Production
  • Distribution
  • Marketing
  • Exhibition


  • 23rd film in James Bond franchise
  • Product placement – Tom Ford, Sony, Aston Martin
  • Heineken paid £28 million for Bond to sip a Heineken beer – covering a third of the £93.7m budget.
  • the movie cost a lot of money to make and nearly as much to promote
  • most marketing is British, underlining Bond’s british heritage
  • joint campaign with VisitBritain – increases british tourism as it’s set in London


  • It was the first Bond film to be screened in IMAX venues, although not filmed with IMAX cameras.
  • The films release coincided with 50th anniversary of the Bond series.
  • Best international opening in IMAX history – $45,000 per screen.


  • Hollywood is dominant
  • British independent films don’t have the budget to compete with the money spent on ‘talent’, SFX and marketing
  • Since the digitalisation of cameras and projectors, British cinema can operate in a more cost effective way and target national audiences
  • Microwave scheme – micro-budget films that tell British stories, such as Shifty, to be made
  • Cinemas like Hollywood blockbusters because they will bring in revenue. Cinemas only make money from sales of extras (popcorn, drinks) so they want to screen films that will gaurantee an audience.



Stereotypes of teenagers

  • men –
  • lazy – negative
  • rude – negative
  • grumpy – negative


  • women –
  • self-centered – negative
  • dumb – negative
  • hormonal – negative
  • hard-working – positive

Stereotypes of elderly

  • men –
  • golf – positive
  • cynical – negative
  • racist – negative


  • women –
  • sweet – positive
  • good at baking – positive
  • slow – negative

men teenager – mostly negative

women teenager – mostly negative, some positive

women elderly – mostly positive, some negative

men elderly – positive and negative

I get my information from personal experience like grandparents, and also how they have been portayed in the media previously.

Children – innocent, pure, naive, helpless – stranger things

Teenagers – moody, lazy, attitude, hates school – skins, gossip girl, PLL

20’s and 30’s – money, glamorous, attractive, fun, love – jane the virgin, friends

middle aged – unnatractive, uncool, boring lives, (in movies villians are often this age) – breaking bad

elderly – slow, ill, weak, dependent – alba jane the virgin, jay modern family

representations which are the same as the dominant representation REINFORCE the stereotype

representations which are different from the dominant representation CHALLENGE the stereotype

ideology = can be traded for representation

There are generally 2 very broad ways in which young people have been targeted and potrayed by the media in Britain.

Dick Hebdige in his book (1979) idetified these as 2 representations:


Michael Brake:

  • teenagers as respectable (alternative),
  • teenagers as delinquent (dominant)

Graeme Burton argues that:

  • teen subculture is in opposition to the dominant culture (of adults). He uses the term ‘problematisation’ to describe the idea of youths as problems.


In this clip, the main characters wear casual, scruffy costumes which reflect their character. The baggy clothes have connotations of laziness which links to Burton’s theory of teenage representations as being delinquents.

The props used by the characters



Case Study: SHIFTY

Who produced the film?

  • Between the Eyes
  • Film London Microwave

Who owns this production company and what other films have they produced?

  • Pen Pugh
  • Rory Aitken
  • Other films they produced – Powers of Three, Welcome to the Punch

Who directed the film?

  • Eran Creevy

What other films have they directed?

  • Welcome to the Punch
  • Collide

What was the budget?

  • £100,000

Who stars in it?

  • Riz Ahmed
  • Daniel Mays
  • Jason Flemyng

What other films have they been in?

  • Rogue One
  • The OA
  • The Bank Job
  • Mrs Biggs

What technology has been used to make the film?

How was the film marketed?

What examples of synergy with other products/merchandise can you find?

What examples of cross media convergence can you find?

What examples of technological convergence can you find?

Where and when was it released and in what cinemas?

What formats was it available in?

Who is the target audience?


  • The Vue, Romford – Beauty and the beast, The boss baby, Ghost in the shell
  • The Connaught, Worthing – Smurfs, Peppa Pig, Going in style
  • The Curzon, Soho – Get out, Free fire, Raw
  • The Odeon, Leicester Square – Beauty and the beast, Kong: skull island, Logan
  • Duke of York’s, Brighton – Get out, Free fire, I am not your negro
  • Cineworld, Cardiff – Beauty and the beast, Boss baby, Ghost in the shell
  • Cineworld, Yeovil –  Beauty and the best, Boss baby, Ghost in the shell